## Convergence process

The values calculated in the Equations 72 and 73 are not directly applied to set the new active power limit and/or desired reactive power of the PVSystem. This is to avoid instability in the convergence process. Therefore, Equations 74 and 75 present the values in kW and kvar of the active power limit and the desired reactive power that are used to update the values of the controlled element.

Where:

- ∆P corresponds to the value set in the deltaP_factor property;
- ∆Q corresponds to the value set in the deltaQ_factor property.

However, if the user wants that OpenDSS takes care of ∆P and/or ∆Q values itself, the user can define them as −1 or just not define any value for them.

Since the watt-pf and watt-var functions do not have problems with instability in the convergence process, the ∆P and/or ∆Q are set equal to 1.

### Updates the powers of the PVSystem element

The six steps described in sub subsection 1.2.1 are performed again, however, in Step 3 the active power limit value, PLimit[t]j, is considered, and, in Step 4, the value of the desired

reactive power, Qt , is the value of QDesired[t]j. Then, the control iteration j + 1 starts in the first step of the control loop, which is the power flow.